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Transparency & Accountability 2016

Transparency & Accountability 2016

GLOBAL ENTEGRITY: Project In 2012, Global Integrity embarked on a five-year collaboration with the Mo Ibrahim Foundation to generate the Africa Integrity Indicators (AII), which […]



In 2012, Global Integrity embarked on a five-year collaboration with the Mo Ibrahim Foundation to generate the Africa Integrity Indicators (AII), which assesses key social, economic, political and anti-corruption mechanisms at the national level across the continent. Global Integrity staff recruit and manage teams of in-country contributors in 54 countries to generate original governance data on an annual basis.

Using a blend of social science and journalism, in-country teams of independent researchers, academics and journalists report on the de jure as well as de facto reality of corruption and governance. Measuring both the existing legal framework and the “in practice” implementation is key in our effort to produce actionable governance data that help governments, citizens and civil society understand and evaluate the status quo and identify intervention points for subsequent reform efforts.

The questionnaire has 114 indicators and is divided in two main categories:

Transparency and Accountability. Drawing from the indicators of the Global Integrity Report (GIR), the Transparency and Accountability category consists of 59 indicators examining issues divided in the thematic areas of rule of law, accountability, elections, public management integrity, civil service integrity, and access to information. The indicators look into transparency of the public procurement process, media freedom, asset disclosure requirements, independence of the judiciary, and conflict of interest laws, among others.
Social Development. The Social Development category consists of 51 indicators about gender, rights, welfare, rural sector, business environment, health and education. It is important to note that this category of the questionnaire was designed to feed the Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) in areas not covered by the secondary data sources it utilizes. Therefore, it does not attempt to be a comprehensive assessment by itself. Because the Social Development portion of the questionnaire only includes a small number of questions per each topic area, Global Integrity only provides the scores per each individual indicator and won’t provide category or subcategory scores. For example, there are only two questions about Health and users can access the score for each of those two indicators, but they won’t find an overall Health score or an overall Social Development score.

Additional information is accessible through the downloads section below.

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The Africa Integrity Indicators are scored by in-country researchers following an evidence-based investigation methodology. The resultant data points are then reviewed blindly by a panel of peer reviewers, drawing on the expertise of a mix of in-country experts as well as outside experts. Rather than relying on experiences or pre-existing perceptions by experts, the strength of Global Integrity’s methodology is that it requires a variety of sources of information to be reviewed and documented (including legal and scholarly reviews, interviews with experts, and reviews of media stories) to substantiate the score choice. Detailed methodology information is accessible in the downloads section below.

The research rounds are dated from the completion of the research process. The period of study for each research cycle is 12 months, and the research is completed approximately 4-6 months after the close of the period of study. The 2013 research round (pilot) had a period of study of June 2011 to September 2012. An improved version of the indicators was used in the 2014 round, with a period of study from September 2012 to September 2013, in the 2015 round, with a period of study from September 2013 to September 2014, and in the 2016 round, with a period of study from September 2014 to September 2015. Another research round intended for release in April 2017 will be starting soon.

The research covers all 54 African countries. The pilot phase covered 50 out of the 54 African countries, excluding the Republic of Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Niger and Lesotho. Beginning with the second round research, all African countries are covered.

Each indicator is presented for the user with three elements – score, explanatory comment, and sources. These components mean that a given scorecard presents a wealth of information. Scores allow for general comparisons across countries, while sources and comments provide a unique window into the realities of regulation and enforcement in each country.

Beginning 2016, Global Integrity put in place a new policy [PDF] that offers potential data users and interested parties a two month window to flag gross errors and inaccuracies which will then be addressed. Our staff having completed all final checks of the fourth round research, the relevant AII data is currently accessible on this website. The results can be searched by country, by topic and year. If you identify any particular indicator as having inaccurate information, please let us know by May 31, 2016 via this form.

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AII Project & Methodology description [ PDF ]
Includes an in depth explanation of the project methodology and intent briefly discussed above.

AII Data

2013 [ EXCEL | CSV ]
2014 [ EXCEL | CSV ]
2015 [ EXCEL | CSV ]
2016 [ EXCEL | CSV ]
2014-2016 Combined [ EXCEL ]
As explained in the methodology description, 2013 was a pilot phase, which prevents easy comparability between 2013 and later rounds.

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In August 2015, Global Integrity has analyzed the research and produced an initial set of findings for the first 3 rounds, presented in the sections below. Findings for the 4th round will be completed in the coming months, and finalized by the end of June 2016. However, the rich data lends itself to much deeper analysis – and is designed to be particularly fruitful when identifying areas for improvement at the country level. Aggregate category and subcategory scores serve as guideposts only – specific items for improvement are found at the indicator level. For instance, a country may have a low aggregate score in the public management integrity section. Looking into this, a user may notice that the lowest scores of the section were earned in indicators focusing on certain elements of the procurement process – effective blacklisting, or timely public accessibility of award and contract information, etc. In this case, these would present clear opportunities for improvement. Likewise, just because a certain country receives a middling or relatively higher aggregate score in a subcategory, this does not preclude room for significant improvement in certain areas – there will often be an indicator or two where the performance is lower, and left unattended, these represent an identified corruption risk that can be improved upon.

Global Integrity is dedicated not only to producing high quality data, but ensuring that it is as useful as possible for reformers (both inside and outside of government) around the world. If you’re interested in working with this data to identify such opportunities in your country, contact us at aii@globalintegrity.org.

Below are the thematic findings and full findings that were published in August 2015, for the Round 1, 2 and 3 (2013, 2014 and 2015). Country findings for Round 4 (2016) are posted below as they are finalized.

Country Findings for 2016

Algeria [PDF] | Angola [PDF] | Benin [PDF] | Botswana [PDF] | Burkina Faso [PDF] | Burundi [PDF] | Cameroon [PDF] | Cape Verde [PDF] | Central African Republic [PDF] | Chad [PDF] | Comoros [PDF] | Democratic Republic of Congo [PDF] | Cote D’Ivoire [PDF] | Djibouti [coming soon] | Egypt [PDF] | Equatorial Guinea [coming soon] | Eritrea [coming soon] | Ethiopia [coming soon] | Gabon [coming soon] | Gambia [coming soon] | Ghana [PDF] | Guinea [coming soon] | Guinea Bissau [coming soon] | Kenya [PDF] | Lesotho [coming soon] | Liberia [PDF] | Libya [coming soon] | Madagascar [PDF] | Malawi [PDF] | Mali [PDF] | Mauritania [coming soon] | Mauritius [PDF] | Morocco [PDF] | Mozambique [PDF] | Namibia [PDF] | Niger [PDF] | Nigeria [PDF] | Republic of Congo [PDF] | Rwanda [PDF] | Sao Tome and Principe [coming soon] | Senegal [PDF] | Sierra Leone [PDF] | Somalia [PDF] | South Africa [PDF] | South Sudan [PDF] | Sudan [PDF] | Swaziland [PDF] | Tanzania [PDF] | Togo [PDF] | Tunisia [PDF] | Uganda [PDF] | Zambia [PDF] | Zimbabwe [PDF]

Full Findings Report (published August 2015) [ Web ]

Subcategory findings (published August 2015)

Rule of Law [ PDF | WEB ] | Accountability [ PDF | WEB ] | Elections [ PDF | WEB ] | Public Management Integrity [ PDF | WEB ] | Civil Service Integrity [ PDF | WEB ] | Access to Information & Openness [ PDF | WEB ]
Youth [ PDF | WEB ] | Civil Society Space [ PDF | WEB ] | Discrimination [ PDF | WEB ] | Gender [ PDF | WEB ] | Statistics [ PDF | WEB ] | Education [ PDF | WEB ]

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In each round of Africa Integrity Indicators research, approximately 150 professionals contribute. While the vast majority are named below, a few have requested anonymity with valid reasoning, and Global Integrity has agreed not to disclose their names.

Round 1 (2013) Contributors

  • Lead Researchers
    • Youlouka Damiba, Emmanuel Aiyede, Soha Farouk, Aderito Machava, Ralph Mathekga, Kalkali El-Hadi, Claude-Ernest Kiamba, Lucien Toulou, Harinaivo Mboara Nirina Andrianarimanana, Papa Amadou Bâ, Ignatius Ssuuna, Didace Kanyugu, Njekwa Mate, Abdirahman Hussein, Abdellatif Ngadi, Molefe Phirinyane, Thomas Doe Nah, Christian Mahillet, Peter Bofin, Fiona Namutebi, Leon Kukkuk, Alain Douathe Koyangozo, Joseph Chunga, Noemie Wetterwald, Dimpho Motsamai, Elieth Eyebiyi, Josué Gomes de Almeida, Hamani Oumarou, Odair Varela, Jean-Louis Romanet Perroux, Rim Nour, Durrel Halleson, Naffet Keita, Benjamin Vel, Solofo Randrianja, Katya Aragao, Fredrick Wanyama, Joseph Koffi Nutefé Tsigbe, Emmanuel Saffa Abdulai, Ramola Ramtohul, Lucas Jorge Olo Fernandes and Joel Célestin Mamboundou Alevinat.
  • Country Reviewers
    • Mustapha Chouikha, Ismael Mahamoud, Foromo Frederic Loua, Terza Lima-Neves, Ivan Atuyambe, Lindiwe Nesila Khumalo-Matse, Eric Ngang, Cheikh Tijani Isselmou, Hisham Soliman, Mohamed Turay, Saikou Ceesay, Michael Seifu, Jean Keberé, Atef Al-saadawy, Jean Claude Bitsure, Rajen Govender, Goodwell Lungu, Adigbli Koffigan E., Alastaire Alinsato, Denboy Kudejira, Bacha Kebede Debela, Meghan Foster Lynch, Antoine Doudjidingao, Andriamahavonjy Florent, Saad Filali Meknassi, Stephen Kaduuli, Abdurrahman Warsameh, Balde Dian, McDonald Chipenzi, Lilian Ekeanyanwu, Nasr-Eddine Lezzar, Wallace Chuma, Terrence Lyons, Fernand Nouwligbeto, Adelard Mambuya Obul’Okwess, Bonfas Owinga, Jasper Cummeh, Babacar Gueye, Carrie Davies, Daniel Mekonnen, Abdoul Mountalib Abdel Wedoude, Jean Pascal Obembo, Onana Renner, Brendan Kelly, Rachid Aboutaieb, Paulino Dias, Richard Mgamba, Ibrahim Mouiche, Nnenna Nwakanma, Kennethy Opala, Maxton Tsoka, Baboo Mintarsingh Nowbutsing, Nana Yaw Saah Aboagye, Norbert Musekiwa, Patrick Semphere, Samuel Adams, Joseph Fashagba, Nonhlanhla Chanza, Jean Papy Manika Manzongani, Debora Valentina Malito, Mamadou Falilou Sarr, William (Bill) Lindeke, Dicko Bréma Ely, Kaphalo Ségorbah Silwé, Thierry Vircoulon, Aden Omar Abdillahi, Eva Palmans, and Frederico Cavazzini.
  • Functional Reviewers
    • Serges Alain Djoyou Kamga, Paul Omondi, Emanuele Santi, and Francina Mhundwa.
  • Regional Reviewers
    • Boniface Dulani, Martin-Luther C. King, Claude Kabemba, Paula Mejia, Sakwa Buliba, Karin Alexander, and Koffi Ahanogbe.

Round 2 (2014) Contributors

  • Lead Researchers
    • Fethi Zaaf, Dulce Fernandes, Maria Lucia Da Silveira, Pacome Tometissi, Kagiso Madibana, Yacouba Bama, W. Aimé Sawadogo, Laetitia Dushimirimana, Stephen Asek, Paul Joel Kamtchang, Rosana Maria Pereira Almeida, Edson Medina, Alain Douathe Koyangozo, Christian Mahillet, Harinaivo Mboara Nirina Andrianarimanana, Aurelie Ganga, William Assanvo, Alexise Evelyne Ouedraogo, Landry Bundju Mopeko, Kenedid Ibrahim Houssein, Muhammad Mansour, Paul de Zardain, Albert Futukpor, Pierra Camara, Tomas Serna, Allan Akombo, Moletsane Monyake, Mahamed Boakai, Nancy Porsia, Toavina Ralambomahay, Joseph Chunga, Souboua David Dembele, Kane Elimane, Madvee Muthu, Amedee Darga, Aida Alami, Aderito Machava, Patience Nyangove, Iain Walker, Ini Ekott, Katya Aragao, Sarr Jacques Ngor, Cheri Baker, Yvonne Rowa, Abdisalan Ahmed, Miriam Mannak, Charlton Doki, Mohammed Ahmed, Tom Mosoba, Sofiane Bouhdiba, Fiona Namutebi, Glory Mushinge, Denboy Kudejira, Noemie Wetterwald, Lucien Toulou, Ishmael Kindama Dumbuya, Santorri Chamley and Erin Byrnes, Harinaivo Mboara Nirina Andrianarimanana, Mé-Chinhô, Eva Palmans, Combey Djidjolé Combetey, Patience Nyangove.
  • Country Reviewers
    • Kalkali El-Hadi, Achamou Simon Chabi Ayedoun, David Mandiyanike, Norbert Musekiwa, Jean Keberé, Francois Pazisnewende Kabore, Casimir Ngendanganya, Eric Ngang, Terza Lima-Neves, Odair Varela, Paulino Dias, Claudine Bagaza Dini, Emile Bizon, Antoine Doudjidingao, Michael Didama, Iain Walker, Attoumani Mohamed Karim, Joseph-Alain Kabongo, Christian Mounzeo, Jean-François Yao, Nicolas Negoce, Anthony Gambino, Ngongo Ngambwa, Ismael Mahamoud, Aden Omar Abdillahi, Hisham Soliman, Atef Al-saadawy, Hilario Sue Alene, Joshua Marks, Wegahta Sereke, Terrence Lyons, Michael Seifu, Eyob Keno Guta, Douglas Yates, Beatrice Torto, Samuel Adams, Foromo Frederic Loua, Paul Kamau, Abdullahi Halakhe, Alexis Stergakis, Lehlohonolo Chefa, Finlay Young, George Kieh, Intissar Rajabany, Jean-Louis Romanet Perroux, Juvence Ramasy, Rado Rakotoarinala, Jimmy Kainja, John Kadzandira, Harouna Fomba, Fidèle Guindou, Cheikh Tijani Isselmou, Abdoul Mountalib Abdel Wedoude, Baboo Mintarsingh Nowbutsing, Ramola Ramtohul, Estacio Valoi, Carrie Davies, William (Bill) Lindeke, Boubakar Chaibou, Ali Salatou, Lilian Ekeanyanwu, Joseph Fashagba, Francois Masabo, Gerhard Seibert, Abdel Kader Bèye, Ben Carson, Anders Reimers Larsen, Debora Valentina Malito, Rajen Govender, Nonhlanhla Chanza, Augustino Ting Mayai, Haliema Altalib, Mantoe Phakathi, Maxwell Mthembu, Alexander Boniface Makulilo, Poncelet Ileleji, Joseph Koffi Nutefé Tsigbe, Mustapha Chouikha, Sameh Zouari, Ibrahim Kasirye, Stephen Kaduuli, Emmanuel Chungu, McDonald Chipenzi, Wallace Chuma, Maxwell Musingafi, Akofoundi Wilfrid Bassale, Serges Alain Djoyou Kamga, Saad Filali Meknassi, Levison Kabwato, Hilario Sue Alene and Noemie Wetterwald, Gerhard Seibert, Marc-André Boisvert, Terza Lima-Neves.
  • Functional Reviewers
    • Stefan Gilbert, Amaka Anku, Sarah Bracking, Jackline Sagwe, Jamils Richard Achunji Anguaseh, Razafinimanana Andriamahefa Nirisoa Malalatiana, Ronda Zelezny-Green, Korieh Duodu, Fola Adeleke, Dorcas Mbuvi, Vitus Adaboo Azeem, Ermira Danaj, Maureen Lewis, Anderson Fumulani, Stephen Yeboah, Eduardo Namburete, Sakwa Buliba, Benyam Dawit Mezmur, Endalkachew Hilemikael Chala, Ajong Mbapndah L., Hakeem Yusuf, Irene Nyambura Mwangi, Francois Joseph Azoh, Muzong Kodi, Serge Nanourou, Yvonne Wangui Machira, Dennis Mbugua Muthama, Bonfas Owinga, Joao Vembane, Ritva Reinikka, Paul Adepelumi, Christine Akinyi Akello, Ondari D. Mogeni, Eva Palmans, Akofoundi Wilfrid Bassale, Serges Alain Djoyou Kamga, Saad Filali Meknassi, Levison Kabwato, Lucien Toulou, and Erin Byrnes.
  • Regional Reviewers
    • Rayna Stamboliyska, Boniface Dulani, Sidy Sissoko, Annette Hübschle, Koffi Ahanogbe, Paul Omondi, Martin-Luther C. King, and David Shinn.

Round 3 (2015) Contributors

  • Lead Researchers
    • Glory Mushinge, Abdelgadir Mohammed, Ini Ekott, Aderito Machava, Mé-Chinhô Albano Costa Alegre, Juvenal Rodrigues, Tamara Aguas, Fethi Zaaf, Pacome Tometissi, Sawadogo Aime, Laetitia Dushimirimana, Paul-Joel Kamtchang, Alain Douathe Koyangozo, Mahamat Ramadane, Harinaivo Mboara Nirina Andrianarimanana, Aubrey Sidney Adoua Mbongo, Albert Futukpor, Pierre Camara, Allan Akombo, Lehlohonolo Chefa, Mahamed Boakai, David Dembele, Elimane Kane, Edmund Kagire, Jacques Ngor Sar, Miriam Mannak, Charlton Doki, Sofiane Boudhiba, Denboy Kudejira, Majdolin Hassan, Fiona Namutebi, Dulce Fernandes, Marcos Ngola, Kagiso Madibana, Odair Barros Varela, Dismas Lyassa, Nashilongo Gervasius, Patience Nyangove, Seydou Souley Mahamadou, Symphorien Pyana, Matilde Stoleroff, Ishmael Kindama Dumbuya, Santorri Chamley and Charra Terfassa.
  • Country Reviewers
    • Jimmy Kainja, Chipenzi McDonald, Ismail Modawiy, Madvee Muthu, Victor Adetula, Estacio Valoi, Debora Valentina Malito, Gerhard Seibert, Nadir Boumaza, Wilfried Bassale, Francois Pazisnewende Kaboré, Eric Ngang, Claudine Bagaza Dini, Antoine Doudjidingao, Saïd Hassane Saïd Mohamed, Franck Nguimbi Mbenze, Aden Omar Abdillahi, Beatrice Torshie Torto, Frederic Foromo Loua, Paul Kamau, Thuso Joel Ramabolu, George Kieh, Moussa Moise Sangare, Cheikh Tijani Isselmou, Susan Thomson, Fatou Jagne-Senghore, Koffi Ahanogbe, Augustino Mayai, Mantoe Phakathi, Sameh Sellami Zouari, Wallace Chuma, Ibrahim Kasirye, David Mandiyanike, Terrence Lyons, Eyob Keno, Edson Medina, Nancy Porsia, Atef Al-Saadawy, Ben Carson, Levison Kabwato, Saad Filali Meknassi, Alexandre Dubuisson, Sasso Pagnou, and Juvence Ramasy.
  • Functional Reviewers
    • Fatou Jagne-Senghore, Victor Adetula, Stefan Gilbert, Sarah Bracking, Vitus Adaboo Azeem, Frank McLoughlin, Fola Adeleke, Levison Kabwato, Erin Byrnes, Gilbert Sendugwa, Irene Mwangi, Eduardo Namburete, Ronda Zelezny-Green, Daniel Dunga, Bonfas Owinga, Jamils Richard Achunji Anguaseh, Ondari D. Mogeni, Christine Akello, Paul Dominique Correa, Sékou Bamba, Eva Palmans, Saad Filali Meknassi, Serges Alain Kamga, Stephen Yeboah, Foromo Frederic Loua, Nirisoa Malalatiana Andriamahefa Razafinimanana, Ousmane Faye, Kathambi Kinoti, Ermira Danaj, Wilfried Bassale, Roger Tafotie, Nicaise Deguenonvo Marius, Nkolo Ayissi Ernest, Claire Hassoun, Hicham Ait Mansour, Kathambi Kinoti and Yvonne Wangui Machira.

Round 4 (2016) Contributors

  • Lead Researchers
    • Aderito Machava, Aimé Sawadogo, Alan Akombo, Albert Futukpor, Ambroise Dakouo, Bouchaib Majdoul, Denboy Kudejira, Edmar Nhaga, Elimane Mamadou Kane, Elimane Haby Kane, Eloge Willy Kaneza, Eva Palmans, Yvette Ihomribere, Fethi Zaaf, Fiona Namutebi, Francois Pazisnewende KABORE, Hassane Amadou Diallo, Ini Ekott, Juvenal Rodrigues, Lehlohonolo Chefa, Letsie Nkareng, Mahamat Ramadane, Mahamed Boakai, Ntibinyane Ntibinyane, Paul-Joel Kamtchang, Simon A. C. Ayedoun, Sofiane Bouhdiba, Symphorien Pyana, Thomas Mosoba, Glory Muchinge, Miriam Manak, Imad Alrawashdeh, Christian Mahilet, Zeca Paulo Buei.
  • Country Reviewers
    • Abdallah Harsi, Alexandre Dubuisson, Antoine Doudjidingao, Aubrey Sydney Adoua-Mbongo, Augustin Kongatoua, Azzedine Layachi, Beatrice Torto Torshie, Ben Carson, Bernard Sabiti, Chaker Mzoughi, Cheikh Tijani Isselmou, Chipenzi McDonald, Christoph Andreas Kohl, Debora Valentina Malito, Estacio Valoy, Eyob Keno Guta, Florent Andriamahavonjy, Frederic Foromo Loua, Gape Kaboyakgosi, George Kieh, Hughes Prosper Pojume, Idrissa Ouedraogo, Imail A. Modawiy, Ismail Mahamoud Houssein, Jamal Msami, Jean Félix Mwema Ngandu, John Schubert, Karim Attoumani Mohamed, Lejukole (Noel) Gori, Louis Busingye, Madvee Muthu, Mantoe Phakati, Moletsane Monyake, Monica Koep, Moussa Moise Sangare, Noemie Wetterwald, Paul Kamau, Shaima A., Sherehan Mohamed Saleh, Tunde Oseni, Wallace Chuma, Wilfrid Bassale, Jimmy Kainja, Aruna Kallon, Tutu Alicante, Judith February.
  • Functional Reviewers
    • Adebayo Okeowo, Bonfas Owinga, Christine Akello, Claire Hassoun, Dan Ngabirano, Daniel Dunga, Daniel Dunga, Eduardo Namburete, Erin Byrnes, Ermira Danaj, Eva Palmans, Fatou Jagne-Senghore, Fola Adeleke, Gilbert Sendugwa, Hicham Ait Mansour, Irene Mwangi, Kathambi Kinoti, Levison Kabwato, Nicaise (Nick) Deguenonvo Marius, Nirisoa Malalatiana Andriamahefa Razafinimanana, Ondari D. Mogeni, Ousmane Faye, Paul Dominique Correa, Rana Jawad, Roger Tafotie, Ronda Zelezny-Green, Ronda Zelezny-Green, Saad Filali Meknassi, Simon David Yana, Stefan Gilbert, Victor Adetula, Vitus Adaboo Azeem.

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1) How do I navigate and explore on this website?
The website was designed to be as intuitive as possible – allowing for you to access comparisons via a map view, and to search for and select indicators through the left-hand search feature. A brief video tutorial is provided below.

2) Why are there some substantial scoring differences between 2013 and 2014 data?
The first round of research (2013) was conducted as a pilot research round. After this round, the scoring criteria used by researchers to assign scores was changed to improve data collection and measurement. This improvement means that 2013 scores shouldn’t be directly compared to the following rounds.
3) Why are certain indicators marked gray and appear as ‘N/A’ in 2013?
There are two reasons that explain this. As noted above, 2013 served as a pilot phase, and it did not cover all countries. Also, some indicators were not used in 2013 and were newly added beginning in the second round. The countries that were not covered in 2013 are Niger, the Republic of Congo, Guinea-Bissau and Lesotho. The 12 indicators that were newly added in the second round are indicators 14, 30, 46, 47, 56, 57, 58, 59, 88, 94, 95,106.
4) Why are certain indicators marked gray and appear as ‘N/A’ in 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016?
In different years we have made minor adjustments to the number of indicators that are covered; for instance 4 indicators (111, 112, 113, and 114) on civil registration were added to the 2016 scorecard, while 10 indicators were dropped (33, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 81, 88, 90, and 95).
5) Why can I see certain comments only in English and others only in French?
Global Integrity makes constant efforts to ensure and improve data accuracy, which also means to carefully take into account the linguistic aspect in the data collection process. Starting the second round, the data collection in anglophone countries and francophone countries took place in English and French, respectively. Data from countries that have either Spanish or Portuguese as their official language were collected in either French or English. By toggling to either English (EN) or French (FR) at the top right of the website, the reader will find this will change all of the website text except for the submitted comments and sources, which remain in the language of collection. The researchers’ work is not translated from the original submission material when one language or the other is selected; only other aspects, such as the indicator text, scoring criteria, etc, is offered in both languages.
6) Why can I only see the aggregate scores for Transparency & Accountability categories, and not for Social Development categories?
Because the Social Development portion of the questionnaire only includes a small number of questions per each topic area, we only provide the scores per each individual indicator and don’t provide category or sub-category scores. In fact, the Transparency & Accountability section draws from the indicators of the Global Integrity Report, whereas the Social Development section was additionally designed to support the Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) in areas not covered by the secondary sources it utilizes. Therefore, it does not attempt to be a comprehensive assessment by itself.
7) Why is there no overall country score? Why is the highest form of aggregate score I can find the score for the Transparency & Accountability section?
Since there is no aggregate score for Social Development and its sub-categories (see question 5), there is also no overall country score. This is why the aggregate score for Transparency & Accountability is the score on the default map.
8) What do the scores 100, 75, 50, 25 and 0 correspond to?
Each indicator has a set of elaborate criteria that corresponds to each possible score. In general, a 100 translates into ‘Very Strong’, a 75 into ‘Strong’, a 50 into ‘Moderate’, a 25 into ‘Weak’ and a 0 into ‘Very Weak’. While in practice indicators are scored on this scale, in law indicators are scored as a YES or NO (equating to a 100 or 0), as a law exists that either meets the criteria, or does not. For a select few in law indicators, a Mixed score (equating to a 50) is also possible. You can also refer to the color codes in the legend on the map view. To interpret how the scoring for an indicator was assigned, you should read the scoring criteria provided on each indicator page (click the ‘i’ on the box displaying the score).

Please note: The map and country boundaries displayed above do not imply expression of any opinion on the part of Global Integrity concerning the legal status of any country, area or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its borders. The depiction and use of boundaries, geographic names and related data shown on maps and included in lists, tables, documents, and databases on this website are not warranted to be error free nor do they necessarily imply official endorsement or acceptance by Global Integrity.

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